What is the 4 Step of HIRA (Hazard Identification and Risk Assessment)?

What is the 4 Step of HIRA (Hazard Identification and Risk Assessment)?
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What is the 4 Step of HIRA (Hazard Identification and Risk Assessment)?

What is the 4 Step of HIRA : Hazard Identification and Risk Assessment (HIRA) is a critical process in ensuring safety within various industries. It involves systematically identifying potential hazards and assessing associated risks to implement measures that mitigate or eliminate these risks. The 4 steps of HIRA are crucial in this process, forming a structured approach to risk management.

Step 1: Hazard Identification

In this initial phase, the focus is on recognizing and understanding potential hazards that could cause harm. Hazards can be categorized into various types, such as physical, chemical, biological, ergonomic, and psychosocial. Identifying these hazards is foundational to the risk assessment process.

Step 2: Risk Assessment

Once hazards are identified, the next step is to assess the risks associated with these hazards. This involves evaluating the likelihood of an incident occurring and the severity of its consequences. Quantitative and qualitative methods are employed to analyze and prioritize risks.

Step 3: Risk Control

After assessing the risks, measures are put in place to control or mitigate them. Strategies may include engineering controls, administrative controls, or the use of personal protective equipment (PPE). The goal is to reduce the likelihood and severity of potential incidents.

Step 4: Monitoring and Review

Continuous monitoring and review are integral to the HIRA process. This step involves evaluating the effectiveness of implemented controls, identifying any new hazards, and ensuring compliance with safety standards. Regular reviews help in maintaining a proactive approach to risk management.

Sample Example: Work at Height Scenario

Introduction: Understanding the Context

Work at height involves any activity where a person is working above ground level, which could expose them to the risk of falling. This scenario explores a common work-at-height situation in the construction industry.

Scenario: Construction of a High-Rise Building

Step 1: Hazard Identification

In the construction of a high-rise building, the first step in the Hazard Identification and Risk Assessment (HIRA) process is recognizing potential hazards associated with working at height. These hazards may include unstable scaffolding, uneven surfaces, adverse weather conditions, and inadequate fall protection.

Step 2: Risk Assessment

Once hazards are identified, the risks associated with each are assessed. For instance, the risk of a fall from an elevated platform is evaluated concerning factors like the height of the platform, the task being performed, and the condition of safety equipment.

Step 3: Risk Control

To mitigate the risks identified, controls are implemented. Workers are required to wear personal fall protection equipment, such as harnesses and helmets. Guardrails and toe boards are installed on elevated work platforms, and regular safety briefings are conducted to reinforce the importance of adhering to safety protocols.

Step 4: Monitoring and Review

Throughout the construction process, ongoing monitoring is crucial. Site supervisors conduct regular inspections to ensure that safety measures are consistently followed. Any changes in the work environment, such as alterations to scaffolding or adverse weather conditions, prompt immediate reviews of the risk control measures in place.

Conclusion: Ensuring Safety in Work at Height

In conclusion, the scenario of construction work at height highlights the importance of a systematic approach to safety. By identifying, assessing, and controlling potential hazards, the construction industry can create a safer working environment for employees involved in tasks at elevation.


The 4 steps of HIRA provide a structured framework for identifying hazards, assessing risks, implementing controls, and continually monitoring safety measures. Implementing these steps effectively can significantly enhance safety protocols and prevent potential incidents across various industries.

HIRA (Hazard Identification and Risk Assessment)

5×5 Risk Matrix

3×3 Risk Matrix

Risk Matrix Calculation

Risk Assessment Matrix With Example


  1. Is HIRA only relevant to specific industries? HIRA is applicable across industries, from construction and healthcare to manufacturing and beyond. Any setting where there are potential hazards can benefit from HIRA.
  2. What are some common challenges in conducting HIRA? Challenges include identifying all possible hazards, accurately assessing risks, and ensuring compliance with evolving safety regulations.
  3. How frequently should HIRA be reviewed and updated? Regular reviews are recommended, ideally whenever there are significant changes in processes, infrastructure, or regulations that could impact safety.
  4. Are there software tools available for conducting HIRA? Yes, various software and technological solutions exist to streamline the HIRA process, offering efficient hazard identification and risk assessment capabilities.
  5. Can HIRA eliminate all workplace hazards? While HIRA aims to mitigate risks, complete elimination of hazards may not always be possible. However, it significantly reduces the likelihood and severity of incidents.
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